# Scalar Waves Research

#### Scalar Waves - Torsion Fields

Experiments are possible to run and effects are repeatable but there is still no formal definition.

Scalar waves are actually not scalar in nature. The name stems from the way these waves are calculated as a solution to Maxwells original equations in his 1862 Theory of Electrodynamics. When initially written in 1862 Maxwell expressed this as a set of 20 equations using quaternion notation. Quaternions are a higher order complex number system that can unambiguously describe 3D rotations, lending itself very useful for rotating fields and flux descriptions. Special rules apply to quaternion calculations using Hamiltonian unit vectors of Sqrt(-1) magnitude. Maxwell was a prominent mathematician and had no problem working with quaternions, however, many of his contemporary peers had great difficulty working with these complicated equations.

Oliver Heaviside and William Gibbs are two of the most recognized contemporaries of Maxwell who simplified and altered Maxwell’s original equations into a condensed set in vector notation. What was not discovered until quite recently was the fact that this simplification effort also removed an entire solution set from being visible – the Scalar Wave solution. Ever since around 1874 the theory of Electrodynamics has been missing this part and it is hence understandable why our current state of theory, knowledge and technology does not broadly recognize the naturally occurring Scalar Waves within electrodynamics.

# Basic Physics

Scalar Waves are longitudinal as opposed to transversal. This implies that their direction of displacement is parallel to their direction of propagation. A common analogy with a body of water such as a lake can be made where transverse waves describe surface waves and longitudinal waves describe pressure waves / sound waves inside the water.

In the picture to the right the top black lined waveform represents a typical water surface wave and its transverse form where water molecules move vertically as the wave propagates horizontally. The red lines waveform represents a pressure wave and its longitudinal form where water molecules move horizontally along the direction of propagation.

Waves in the electrical and magnetic fields behave in a similar fashion but unlike the water example above the present state of the art does not make use of longitudinal waves in this domain, the so called Scalar Waves. Transverse Electromagnetic waves are however understood and are being used to a large extent and make up a wide range of broadcast and communications technologies such as radio-television, radar, infrared, micro, x-ray and of course optical systems.

Scalar Waves can thus most easily be understood as being pressure waves propagating through the static dielectric field and since they also have different properties when compared to transverse EM waves they possess other and unfamiliar characteristics. Some of these characteristics open up new engineering possibilities which this TB intends of touch upon.

In well-known Electromagnetic waves there are two components, the electric and magnetic flux densities that oscillate perpendicular to one another, meaning that the electric field fluctuations and the magnetic field fluctuations are occurring in planes rotated 90 degrees to each other. When depicted as in the middle it is clear why these Electromagnetic waves are described as being transversal in form. The E and H fields are at right angles to each other at all times.

Scalar Waves also contain two components in the E and H fields, however, these are oriented in a different way. The oscillations (field strength fluctuations) now occur along and separately from the path of propagation. The Magnetic field flux density oscillates along the path of propagation and the Electric field flux density oscillates stationary in all directions : omni-directional.

The picture at the bottom right tries to show how these waves move along the propagation path (v). As can be noted in the picture the E field fluctuations are stationary and not moving whereas the H field fluctuations are longitudinal. The E field is here purely scalar in the sense that it consists of discrete point strengths (shown as inflating/deflating discs). The H field is longitudinal and sees no impedance in any dielectric medium.

Due to the above described nature of Scalar Waves they do not incur losses during propagation through any medium, which also means they are not affected by also metallic materials that affect the E and H field fluctuations in transverse Electromagnetic waves. Faraday cages have no effect on Scalar Waves, they penetrate these as easily as any other material unimpeded (no losses).

It should also be noted that since the main or dominant field in the propagation of Scalar Waves is the H field with the magnetic flux density oscillations occurring in the direction of propagation this means that Scalar Waves behave and look like magnetic field lines. One peculiar feature therefore is that a point to point transmission of Scalar Waves occurs along magnetic field lines implies that these field lines converge on the receiver end of the transmission. This in turn means that there is no loss of signal strength due to distance as with standard transverse Electromagnetic waves.

This feature of Scalar Waves is why they lend themselves well to allow transfer of Electromagnetic power at a distance. There are also other features that are just as useful which we will touch upon later in this technical brief.

# Experimentation

As proof of scalar wave transmission a series of test were conducted with a modest load driven at the receiver end, consisting of a bank of spot lights. The level of power transferred in this experiment is low but is limited by the specially designed equipment being used. A standard setup consisting of Transmitter coil Type-C and Receiver coil Type-A connected by a common grounding was tested at three different distances: 1.5m , 3.6m and 5.1m.

The basic setup using transmitter Coil-C type and receiver Coil-A type with common ground wire was used with a Tx-Rx distance of 150cm. Tuning the frequency to resonance at 3.6MHz using both oscilloscope magnitude method and coil pcb visible LEDs.

Allowing approximately 30s for resonance waves to stabilize the following standard voltage levels are measured (note that no load is connected yet).

The transmitter primary coil voltage reading without loading connected. At 3.6MHz Sinewave continuous feed there is a steady 0.78V across the primary coil (driver coil). Most of the power is being directed into the secondary coil and aerial terminal and sent to the receiver coil. The receiver primary coil voltage reading without loading connected is slightly lower than usual at 110.8V steady. The power oscillations observed when changing the static dielectric field by e.g. touching the table indicates a strong scalar field presence, tested by lighting a light-rod held at a small distance from the transmitter raising both primary coils’ voltage levels modestly.

When attempting to power purely resistive loads however it turned out not to be possible. Standard Reactive power phase conversion methods were tried without success. It is clear that the scalar wave transmission works on purely reactive power and it is due to this fact that a resonating standing wave can be established between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) without decay. When attempting to shift this Reactive power into Active power capable of driving purely resistive loads it proved to be a very delicate process. There are several factors that all need to be met, these being:

- Frequency and frequency shift introduced by filter or bridge.
- Time constant resulting from resistive nature of components used.
- Secondary frequency dependent factors such as the skin effect of circuitry used.

In the end discrete filtering ceramic capacitors arranged in a tripod fashion and with minimal signal path was found to work adequately. Each output pole has an identical 3-parallel capacitor arrangement which allows for enough Active power conversion to power a small resistive 12V lightbulb requiring a minimum of 300mA. This is just about what the system is able to provide in its current configuration.

## Why are they not generally known nor used in our current electrodynamic theory?

The original author of our present day theory of electrodynamics was the Scottish physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell. When initially written in 1862 Maxwell expressed this as a set of 20 equations using quaternion notation. Quaternions are a higher order complex number system that can unambiguously describe 3D rotations, lending itself very useful for rotating fields and flux descriptions. Special rules apply to quaternion calculations using Hamiltonian unit vectors of Sqrt(-1) magnitude. Maxwell was a prominent mathematician and had no problem working with quaternions, however, many of his contemporary peers had great difficulty working with these complicated equations. There were no pocket calculators for engineers, physicists etc. and this made the manual labor very tedious and error prone.

Oliver Heaviside and William Gibbs are two of the most recognized contemporaries of Maxwell who simplified and altered Maxwell’s original equations into a condensed set in vector notation. What was not discovered until quite recently was the fact that this simplification effort also removed an entire solution set from being visible – the Scalar Wave solution. Ever since around 1874 the theory of Electrodynamics has been missing this part and it is hence understandable why our current state of theory, knowledge and technology does not broadly recognize the naturally occurring Scalar Waves within electrodynamics.

When we use the term Electromagnetic (EM) we generally refer to a wide range of phenomena and it is implicitly understood to involve all existing waveforms. This is strictly speaking not correct however and when expressing Scalar Waves within electrodynamics it should be noted that these are not Electromagnetic but rather Magneto-Dielectric. The predominant component in Scalar Waves is the magnetic component and the affected component is the electric component which is point-wise (scalar) in the dielectric field. In a transverse Electromagnetic wave it is instead the electric component that dominates and the magnetic component is locked to it and not vice-versa.